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Introduction to Biblical Interpretation Revised and ExpandedThe authors of this book have Biblical Interpretation ePUB #10003 combined years of expertise and devotion to Scripture to provide a truly uniue volume that sets forth concise logical practical guidelines for discovering the truth in God's. Review of Introduction to Biblical Interpretation by William W Klein Craig L Blomberg and Robert L Hubbard JrMost evangelical Christians would agree that Scripture was “given by inspiration of God to be the rule of faith and life” Most would agree that it is the highest rule of faith and life for the Christian However the Scriptures are God’s written Word which means they have to be read interpreted and applied for their rule to be than just empty talk not to mention they must be obeyed This begs many uestions like “How can one learn what the Bible says” or “How can we read and interpret the Bible faithfully so we can apply it to our lives” The challenge of these uestions is heightened when we remember that the Bible was written down in three different languages by many different men in many different genres in many different life situations and over the span of about 1500 years How do we understand and apply a message that was not written in our language culture or time The task of interpreting the Bible is a challenging one but one that Christians are called privileged to take up for “All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching for reproof for correction and for training in righteousness that the man of God may be complete euipped for every good work” Instructing believers in this task is the goal that Klein Blomberg and Hubbard Denver Seminary professors have taken up in their work Introduction to Biblical Interpretation They have combined their years of expertise and experience in Old and New Testament studies to provide concise logical and practical guide to biblical interpretation In the below review we will summarize this text and then offer some comments about value of this work Right from the beginning in the Table of Contents one can see how well organized this book is The triad of authors has broken down the subject of interpretation into five main parts The Task of Interpretation The Interpreter and the Goal Understanding Literature Understanding Bible Genres and The Fruits of Interpretation Each section is broken down into chapters and each chapter is further broken down into headings sections and sometimes even sub sections This along with the authors’ proclaimed intent that “each chapter was designed to be self contained in scope” makes this work an excellent resource and reference material for any Bible interpreter to have on his personal library shelf In Part I of this book the authors’ look at the task of interpretation In this part there are four chapters that lay the foundation for biblical interpretation Chapter one lays part of this foundation by defining what the method of interpretation is and why it is necessary Therefore they introduce the subject of hermeneutics which they define as the art and science of biblical interpretation Learning hermeneutics is crucial for proper interpretation because the Bible was written within a historical perspective and under certain circumstances By contrast the interpreter lives in the midst of different circumstances with another historical perspective He is separated from the original author and audience by time culture geography and language He has certain presuppositions and preunderstandings that are different from the original author and audience That however does not mean he is doomed never to understand but that he needs tools and approaches that will guide him in the process interpreting meaning through understanding the text the author and the audience With proper hermeneutics one can interpret the eternal relevance of God’s Word to His people so that the Scriptures and guide and affect readers today In chapter two the authors briefly survey this history of interpretation They start in the inter testamental period by looking at Jewish methods of interpretation Then they proceed through the first century the Patristic Period the Middle Ages the Reformation and all the way to the mid twentieth century Chapter three follows up chapter two by looking deeply at recent approaches to interpretation like narrative criticism poststructuralism liberation theology feminist theology and cultural criticism In chapter four the authors take a look at the biblical canon and translations They define the canon as the collection of Scriptures which the Christian Church accepts as uniuely authoritatively God’s Word They then briefly overview the development of the Old Testament OT and the New Testament NT and look at the criteria for canonicity in both Testaments Next the authors introduce the readers to text criticism the critical texts and translation techniues This gives them the tools necessary to give the readers advice on choosing an English translation When choosing a translation they advise the readers to take note of the extent to which the translation utilizes the findings of modern textual criticism what translation philosophy the group adopted formally euivalent dynamically euivalent or paraphrase and the purpose or occasion for reading the Bible In this chapter the discussion of textual criticism gives the authors the opportunity to reassure that readers that even though we do not have the original autographs “the vast majority of the Bible is textually secure” They also give advice for handling sections of the Bible that are textually uncertain which can be summed up by saying “one must not derive theological or ethical principles solely from passages that are textually uncertain” In Part II of this work the authors turn their attention to the interpreter himself and the goal of interpretation Chapter five addresses the interpreter They first list what they believe to be the necessary ualifications of an interpreter of Scripture a reasoned faith he must personally know the God the Scriptures reveal obedience willingness to hear the text the way it was intended illumination regeneration by and indwelling of the Holy Spirit church membership for the nurturing of reuirements for truly hearing the text and accountability and appropriate methods They next list what they believe to be the necessary presuppositions for an interpreter of Scripture the Bible is God’s inspired revelation to His people it is authoritative and true it is of spiritual value it is one unified whole yet diverse it is understandable and the canon is complete and closed The authors are uick to note that unbelieving scholars who do not have the above presuppositions and ualifications can grasp much of its technical meaning but they cannot understand the true significance of the message A few presuppositions for hermeneutics follows particularly the goal of hermeneutics which they define as arriving “at the meaning of the text that the biblical writers or editors intended their readers to understand” Finally the authors look at “preunderstanding” which they define as the body of assumptions and attitudes that a person brings to the interpretation of any aspect of reality Presuppositions are part of an interpreter’s total preunderstanding of a work Particularly of note is their idea of the “hermeneutical spiral” The spiral is the process through which preunderstanding affects understanding and understanding then alters preunderstanding It is a spiral because the interpreter does not go around in circles but progresses to a hopefully closer understanding of the meaning of the text In chapter six the authors address the goal of interpretation which is to discover the meaning that is already in the text In this they pose the uestion “Does a text have only one possible meaning” In answering this they first draw the helpful distinction between meaning and significance the former being fixed by the author while the later can change with proper application They then look at several options for meanings in the text and come to the conclusion that “the author encoded historical meaning of these texts remains the central objective of hermeneutics” At this point we disagree slightly with the authors We believe they do not do justice to the historical idea of a sensus plenior fuller sense intended by the Holy Spirit in the text particularly the OT They dismiss the idea as impractical because “traditional historical grammatical and critical methods of exegesis cannot detect or understand such a fuller sense” However did not Christ Himself say “It is the Scriptures that bear witness about me” Was it not Christ who “beginning with Moses and all the Prophets he interpreted to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself” If the “all the Scriptures” really were about Christ then we must admit there was a deeper meaning unknown or at least not completely understood to the original authors The authors ask how one can access the deeper meaning and the answer is the light of Christ He provides the hermeneutical key to understand the whole OT As B B Warfield’s analogy goes the OT is like a richly furnished but dimly lit room Only when the light is turned on do the contents become clear and that light is Christ as seen in the NT testimony of Him They are right to a degree—we need to understand the author encoded original meaning of the texts However when it comes to the OT we need to look at it in the light of Christ as the apostles did to see how it witnesses to Him In the final section of this chapter the authors give a checklist to use to help validate interpretations the interpretation is possible according to the norms of the language it accounts for each linguistic component it follows the conventions of the genre and it makes sense To this the authors add that when Christians disagree grace must prevail in disagreements In Part III of this work the authors look at general rules for interpreting literature particularly the difference between prose and poetry In chapter seven they first look at prose and give general interpretive principles for its interpretation They show that it must be understood within its own literary context the meaning that is consistent with the sense of the literary content in which the passage occurs historical cultural context the historical and cultural background in which the text was written and received word meanings the normal meaning of the words in the context in which they occur and grammatical structural relationships what the structure of the words phrases sentences and paragraphs reveal about meaning Each section is investigated at length and the authors give principles of interpretation with many examples to aid in understanding In chapter eight the authors give an introduction to biblical poetry They start out by looking at the dynamics of poetry in general and then they zero in on Hebrew poetry by looking at the sounds in Hebrew poetry the structure of Hebrew poetry and the language of Hebrew poetry Their sections on rhythm meter and parallelism are very helpful Conspicuously absent however in their section of structures is acrostic They cover techniues like the various forms of parallelism ellipsis and chiasm yet they leave out acrostic It is mentioned nowhere in this book This is hard to believe since there are numerous examples of it in the Psalms Psalm 119 the longest psalm and Lamentations whole structure is built on it While this chapter is a very good introduction it cannot be considered complete since such an important poetic techniue is omitted In Part IV the authors further breakdown the basic literary categories of prose and poetry Chapter nine tackles the genres of the OT The goal of this chapter is to give readers literary competence in the genres of the OT so that they can read the text in light of its own medium and purpose They cover narrative 40% of the OT law poetry prophecy and wisdom literature They break each type down further into sub genres and give the reader interpretive principles for each sub genre Given the extent of the introduction to each genre we believe that if readers follow the advice of the authors they will achieve literary competence in the OT genres Chapter ten tackles the NT genres Again the authors want to give readers literary competence in the genres so that they can read the text in light of its own medium and purpose The task is slightly different here however because the NT genres are uniue adaptations of existing NT contemporary genres The books may formally parallel existing genres but materially they “prove uniuely Christian” Therefore the Gospels are theological Hellenistic biographies Acts is theological history the epistles are didactic theological letters and Revelation is a combination of epistle prophecy and apocalyptic As with the previous chapter on OT genres each genre is broken down into sub genres when necessary and principles are given for interpretation in each Also as with the previous chapter we believe that if readers follow the advice of the authors they will achieve literary competence in the NT genresIn the final part Part V the authors look at the fruit of interpretation In chapter eleven they look at the using the Bible in various areas today They give advice for gaining understanding worship liturgy theology preaching teaching pastoral care spiritual formation and pure enjoyment For the most part this chapter gives good principles and insight yet their section on theology in our opinion does not give confessions and creeds their proper respect They specifically state “Nor ought we naively consider that Confession or any other one to be a timeless statement of Christian theology contemporary Christians reuire theologians living now to express what the Christian faith means today” While we agree that no confession or creed has the authority of Scripture we do not agree that they cannot be statements of timeless Christian theology Certainly every period has their own theological emphases and agenda but if as the authors state the goal of hermeneutics is to find the original intended meaning of the author and that meaning does not change would not statements of theology be timeless insofar as they are biblical If that is so confessions and creeds should have greater weight than merely “mentors” and “advisors” We hold that creeds and confessions give us boundary authority in which we can do our “theologizing” They are not boundaries like those Scripture provides but they do provide points where we are reminded that we must have strong Scriptural reasons for going beyond In the final chapter chapter twelve the authors look at the subject of application As they state “For the practicing Christian the process begun with interpretation is incomplete if it stops at the level of meaning” Application or “significance” is an essential part to interpretation They give and elaborate on a four step process for application 1 determine the original applications intended by the passage; 2 evaluate the level of specificity of the applications in their context and how transferable they are to other cultures; 3 if the original applications are not transferable identify the broader principles that undergird the original application; and 4 find appropriate applications for today based on those principles In the second and third steps they elaborate further by giving ways to look at the applications or principles so that readers do not just toss them out because they do not want to transfer them Before ending the book they look again at the role of the Holy Spirit and stress the necessity of His illumination for proper application This is an extensive introduction to biblical interpretation that methodically covers all the areas necessary for a good biblical hermeneutic There are a few reservations we have had about a few specific points mentioned above but for the most part we believe this book is extremely helpful It is written in such a way that pastors seminary students or any other Christian can comprehend and apply There are several overarching aspects of this book that we believe make it essential to every Christian’s library First the hermeneutic is a very good one Though we do believe that it would need to be supplemented by another work that gives proper credence to the light of Christ illuminating the OT Second the book is written in such a way as to make it an excellent reference resource Each chapter can be read on its own and each section and sub section is full of good examples that show how to apply what the authors teach Finally the book is full of great footnotes that can give the eager reader enough supplementary reading to fill many many hours of study on all the subjects they present For these reasons we highly recommend this book to anyone who wants to get a better understanding of how to interpret Scripture

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review Ï Introduction to Biblical Interpretation Revised and Expanded ì PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ↠ ❰Download❯ ➽ Introduction to Biblical Interpretation Revised and Expanded Author William W. Klein – Insolpro.co.uk The authors of this boThoroughly evangelical it also interacts with nonevangelical interpretational stances  No other volume available on biblical interpretation does so much so well Douglas Stuart Professor of Old Testament Gordon Conwell Theological Seminar. Read this in two classes I took at Moody Bible Institute I've read many books on hermeneutics before but only two textbooks I greatly preferred the other Grasping God's Word by DuvallHays to this one One reason was the amount of stances they took on issues that I disagreed with such as women's ministry But the other was just clearer and a enjoyable read Having said that I gave the book three stars because there was a lot of great content in it as well It is a fine intro to biblical interpretation just not the cream of the crop

William W. Klein ä 5 Read & Download

Word  Ten years after its initial publication the authors now have thoroughly updated it in light of the latest Introduction to eBook #239 scholarshipThis is a remarkably comprehensive study of the whole area of biblical interpretation . The book Introduction to Biblical Interpretation was a very enjoyable read The authors William M Klein Craig L Blomberg and Robert L Hubbard Jr did a very good job at conveying the topic of hermeneutics in a very detailed way yet not so scholarly that it wasn’t readable I feel that this book was very informative and covered a broad spectrum of issues involved in hermeneutics This paper will critiue the major points of the book as well as discuss the strengths and weaknessesPart one of Introduction to Biblical Interpretation focused on defining Hermeneutics and demonstrating the crucial need for careful and valid hermeneutical principles This section was broken down into four major chapters discussing the need historical overview contemporary approaches and philosophies and the biblical canon and translationsIn the chapter The Need for Hermeneutics the authors described hermeneutics as the task of explaining the meaning of a piece of writing They pointed out that it describes “the principles people use to understand what something means to comprehend what a message–written oral or visual–is endeavoring to communicate” Introduction to Biblical Interpretation p4 The book goes on to ask the uestion of why we need hermeneutics The answer I retained from the reading was “to establish explain and demonstrate guidelines and methods to guide those who want to understand Scripture correctly” p 5One of the major challenges that hermeneutics faces is distance Distance was divided into distance of time cultural distance geographical distance as well as the distance of language Each of these distances truly separates the reader from the author The distance has to be filled in with extra information gathered from external sources This becomes a challenge when considering which external sources are appropriate and which are viable to useIn chapter two the authors gave a historical overview of hermeneutics and how different cultures interpreted and analyzed the biblical texts As the authors took the reader through history they pointed out philosophies such as neo orthodoxy and Biblical Theology Movement which arose in response to the challenge of hermeneutics The authors also introduced readers to popular thinkers over time and their concepts that helped to shape the way we interpret the bible todayChapter three described the major approaches to contemporary hermeneutics literarynarrative criticism and social scientific Literary criticism according to Aida Spencer is made up of fifteen distinct definitions including analysis of authorship date place of writing original audience linguistic style sources tradition and redaction integrity and purpose p 64 Each of these definitions provides a detailed analysis of the text and further illuminates its meaning The second approach to contemporary hermeneutics is narrative criticism which evaluates biblical texts as any other literary genre such as Shakespeare or Cicero Narrative criticism “analyzes plot theme motifs characterization style figures of speech symbolism foreshadowing repetition speed of time in narrative point of view” and p 65On the other end of the contemporary approaches is the social scientific The authors stated that “these social scientific studies fall into two broad categories research that illuminates the social history to the biblical world and the application of modern theories of human behavior to scriptural texts” p78 To me the social scientific criticisms are much subjective to ones opinions and are easily led in an inaccurate interpretationIn chapter four entitled The Canon and Translations Klein Blomberg and Hubbard discuss the development of the Old and New Testament Canons as well as discuss the order of the canon and what criteria enabled a text to be included in the biblical text The chapter also discussed a rather lengthy description of the challenges involved in the texts themselves and biblical translations we have available today This chapter was especially fascinating to mePart two of the book Introduction to Biblical Interpretation considered the interpreter itself the ualifications presuppositions necessary and appropriate for the task of biblical interpretation Some of the ualifications necessary for an interpreter include but are not limited to a reasoned faith obedience illumination membership in the church and appropriate methods Only with these ualifications in place can someone approach the process of interpretation with an open mindThe authors also discussed some presuppositions about the nature of the bible that the interpreter must have to appropriately approach biblical interpretation The presuppositions included the interpreter’s views of revelation and inspiration their views of the authority of the bible and use of and purpose of biblical study The interpreter must also understand that the bible is a unit and yet diverse and must accept the bible in its entirety if they are to ever truly interpret it as a complete work​Chapter four also discussed the issue of the interpreter’s preunderstanding of biblical text This chapter was really interesting and helped me to see that an interpreter’s background experiences and motivation can all effect the interpretation of a text The authors state that “every interpreter begins with a preunderstanding After an initial study of a biblical text that text performs a work on the interpreter as the newly interpreted interpreter proceeds to uestion the text further out of this newly formed understanding further uestions emerge New understanding results” p 166 This process of allowing the preundertanding to evolve as uestions are answered allows for true growth in the individual interpreterIntroduction to Biblical Interpretation next discussed the goals of interpretation This chapter first explains that the goal of interpretation is to understand the meaning of the text The authors said that there are three potential aspects of meaning the meaning the author intends to convey the grammatical and lexical meaning of the words configured on the page and the meaning the reader understands Each of these meanings can be different and must be interpreted very carefully other wise unsound doctrines will ensue Introduction to Biblical Interpretation draws from EE Hirsch’s knowledge and says that there are four criteria to establish that an interpretation is sound true to the norms of the language able to account for each linguistic component in the text must follow the conventions for this type of literature and it must be coherent p 202 In a word context Towards the end of this chapter on the goals of interpretation the authors propose a statement for conflicting interpretation that I really appreciated They said “I don’t agree with you conclusions but in light of who you are and your community of faith in light of how these biblical texts have been interpreted throughout history and in light of the diligence and care with which you attempt to understand and life in conformity to the bible’s teachings I concede your interpretation You have responded to the Bible in a valid manner” p 208 Following this statement the authors say that “we must allow that both options are possible ‘agree to disagree’ and support each other as brothers and sisters in the life of faith” p 209Part three of Introduction to Biblical Interpretation established basic principles for understanding how literature functions It described the general rules for prose such as literary context historical cultural background word meanings and grammatical structural relationships It also discussed the general rules for poetry This section of the book went in to great detail to describe and define various poetic terms such as rhyme meter sound structure imagery and comparisonsIn Part four Introduction to Biblical Interpretation introduced the reader to the specific kinds of literature found in the bible and gave an overview of the appropriate methodologies for understanding the meaning conveyed by each These chapters went in to great detail discussing both the old and New Testament genres In the Old Testament it discussed narrative law poetry prophecy and wisdom In the New Testament it discussed the gospels acts epistles and revelationPart five of Introduction to Biblical Interpretation sought to make accessible the practical wealth of the bible by briefly investigating the various ways it ministers to God’s people This was the application section of the book It explained the different ways we use the bible today Most people use the bible for one or of the following information worship liturgy theology preach teach pastoral care spiritual formation or aesthetic enjoymentThe final chapter entitled Application discussed avoiding mistakes in interpretation and application The authors suggested a four step methodology for legitimate application of biblical text Step number one is to determine the original application Step number two is to evaluate the level of specificity of the original applications Step number three is to identify the cross cultural principles Finally step number four is to find appropriate applications that embody the broader principles as well as implement them I also found the ten uestions for better understanding the broader interpretations very usefulI feel as though the strengths out weigh the weaknesses of this book The strengths I enjoyed is that it is very detailed in describing the methods approaches to bible study and provided multiple views on subjects leaving the reader with the principles to formulate their own biblical beliefs The weaknesses I see in this book is a tendency toward pluralism Since there was no position taken on doctrinal issues or on what the bible says there is a subtle thought that people should think and reason for themselves While this self owned theology is good some people are not spiritually mature to do it on their own and need the council as the book mentioned to seek a larger church body to study the issues together to safeguard against heretical or unbiblical doctrinesTo summarize the book Introduction to Biblical Interpretation I would say that it was very informative and insightful readable as well as a great reference book for those seeking to better understand how to approach the bible and apply its teachings to their lives I felt that the authors had a very balanced perspective of the bible and did not become dogmatic at any point in the book not did they seem to try and force their views of scripture on the reader I felt like the authors have a very good grasp on the bible and its teachings I feel that the authors respect the bible as well as understand its diversity