Read & Download ò Military Inc Inside Pakistan's Military Economy 105

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Read & Download ò Military Inc Inside Pakistan's Military Economy 105 ì ➹ [Reading] ➻ Military Inc Inside Pakistan's Military Economy By Ayesha Siddiqa ➮ – Pakistan is a strategic ally of the US in the ‘war on terror’ It is the third largest recipient of US aid in thAnd political landscape of the country Military Inc dares to illuminate the military as an oppressive holding company possessing not just security related businesses but also hotels shopping malls insurance companies banks farms and even an airline The result is a deeply undemocratic society where money is funnelled towards the military's economic enterprises leaving th. According to Francis Fukuyama colonial powers left three institutions in former colonies as a legacy after decolonization namely bureaucracy military and democracy The bureaucracy and military was strengthened by the colonial governments in order to maintain a strong control over domestic environment Democracy however did not flourish and people were not used to self government After decolonization the nascent states had strong institutions of bureaucracy and military while the democracy was relatively a weaker institution This lead to a strong grip of the former two institutions on state of affairs in the decolonized states whereas the democratic institutions were not as developed as in the case of West Building upon this Ayesha Siddia explains the concept of military’s influence and control over the economy of a country She coins the term Milbus which “refers to military capital that is used for the personal benefit of the military fraternity” This capital is not included in the defence budget of armed forces It is also called the internal economy of the military Author includes senior military officers retired officers and the civilians who are dependent upon military business associations in military fraternity The author thus defines the functioning of Milbus and concludes that it is predatory in nature and its primary purpose is to benefit the officer cadre of armed forces The extent of penetration of military in economic affairs of a state decides the political power of military in that certain state She then describes Milbus in three types of states and takes the case of Milbus in Pakistan afterwards In description of Milbus in Pakistan the author have described the history of Milbus its evolution and expansion development of military as a separate class the elements of Milbus in Pakistan namely the land acuisitions welfare foundations and corporates owned by the armed forces She also assesses the cost of Milbus on Pakistan’s budget and economy and describes the future prospects of Milbus and Pakistan The definition of term Milbus is an excellent effort by Ayesha Siddia to lay down a framework of research in the military economy She has not limited the extent of Milbus to Pakistan but also categorized it in different levels of states It can serve as a sound basis for further research work in military economy of Pakistan as well as of other countries around the world The analysis of Milbus in Pakistan gives an enlightening account of military’s control over the economic affairs of country and thus on the political environment as well It is a taboo topic in Pakistan and the author has carried out a very well initiative for research on this topic and have also provided basis for further research After understanding the interestingly laid out central idea of book ie Milbus the reader expects the book to go forth in an engaging manner To his disappointment however the book gets dry and hard to keep up with in the chapters proceeding the theoretical concept of Milbus Many of the ideas and opinions regarding the Milbus in Pakistan are repetitive One of the facts that was hard to grasp was to whom she was referring to at moments because she used the term ‘military’ as a collective term for all of the forces It would have been easier to understand to which part of the military she was referring at timesAlso there is no order and coherence in description of different ideas in a single chapter So for instance the author moves from discussing armed forces’ welfare trusts to the land acuisitions and then moves back to discussing the welfare trusts only to start discussing the corporates owned by armed forces Another major drawback in our opinion was with the statistical data presented in the book The author claimed to have acuired a good amount of data and statistics for this research which is not easily available in general But looking into the statistics most of them are confined to the time between 1995 and 2007 even between 1997 to 2003 While the Milbus has been operating much earlier Also the variables presented in statistics and the patterns between and among them are not satisfactorily defined by the author The book is effective in coining the concept of Milbus but it is is hard to carry on with consistency Also the writing style is ineffective and incoherent This book is not recommended for general readership A general reader who doesn’t have any special interest in the topic of this book will find it hard to read this book Even those with interest in military may find it difficult to keep up with Only those who are keenly interested in the military economy of South Asia may read it

Ayesha Siddiqa Ö 5 Free read

Ose in need of it impoverished and effectively disenfranchised With an empirical richness and a view to Pakistan’s recent history Ayesha Siddia offers a detailed and powerful case study of a global phenomenon corruption hollow economic growth and elitismThis new edition includes a chapter on the recent developments of the military's foray into the media and a new prefa. Military Inc Inside Pakistan's Military Economy is a book written by Ayesha Siddia about the role of Pakistan’s military in statecraft and economy The book offers a detailed account on how military became the bedrock of Pakistan’s polity and the roles it played during her 70 years short history With pervasive explanations Ayesha Siddia shows how poached the military has become in Pakistan’s corporate sector and governance With having these important knowledge about Pakistan one can presume that the country is far behind becoming a true democracy in the near future As long as the military controls every step of life in Pakistan the civilians have to bribe the Generals to uphold their foot on political power Without sharing a large part of the cake it becomes impossible to run the country with democratic and civilized agendas as military has abandoned leverages to challenge civil governments I recommend this book to ones who are interested to know Pakistan and its future

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Military Inc Inside Pakistan's Military EconomyPakistan is a strategic ally of Inside Pakistan's eBook #8608 the US in the ‘war on terror’ It is the third Military Inc Epublargest recipient of US aid in the world Yet Pakistan is a state run by its army and Inc Inside Pakistan's Epub #220 intelligence serviceOperating in the shadows Pakistan’s military industrial complex owns and controls swathes of the economic. The author starts the book by defining MilbusMilbus refers to military capital that is used for the personal benefit of the military fraternity especially the officer cadre but is neither recorded nor part of the defence budget Milbus in Pakistan is part of the tribute that the military extracts for providing services such as national security The exploitation of national resources by the elite is a result of the peculiar nature of the precapitalist politico economic system The deliberate concealment of Milbus is meant to project the military as being honest and less corrupt than civilian players Milbus compromises of two broad but distinct set of activities1 Profit making through the privatization of security this trend is mostly followed by the developed economies 2 Military engagement in non traditional roles such as farming or running businesses like hotels airlines banks or real estate agencies this occurs mainly in developing economies The businesses run by the four foundations the Fauji Foundation Army Welfare Trust Shaheed Trust and Bahria Foundation are very diverse in nature ranging from small scale ventures such as bakeries farms schools and private security farms to corporate enterprises such as commercial banks insurance companies radio and television channels fertilizers cement and cereal manufacturing plants Whereas the Fauji Foundation and the Army Welfare Trust are the largest business conglomerates in the countryOver the 72 years of Pakistan's history the army has experienced direct power four times and learnt to negotiate authority when not directly in control of the government Pervez Musharraf formed the National Security Council in 2004 and transformed the status of the military from being an instrument of policy to an awesomely powerful organization that could protect its interests as an eual member of the ruling elite Milbus is both politically and socially expensive Politically it nurtures the military's power ambitions and socially it reduces the society's acceptability of the military as an arbitrator and increases the alienation of the underprivileged the dispossessed and the have notsMilitary rules takes 3 forms 1 Personal the political system is dominated by the dictator who distributes restrictively along his sycophants 2 Oligarchic the ruling class relies on support of an otherwise autonomous military institution 3 Corporatist the institutional involvement of the military in politics and governance Pakistan's politics have had a highly elitist nature because the ruling elite tried to partner with the military to pursue their political and economic interests The civil military bureaucracy played a key role in giving birth to the indigenous bourgeoisie or the business industrialist class which formed part of the dominant elite All military regimes create clients which act as the civilian face of the military and legitimize the military's control and are nourished by the defense establishment for the times when the bulk of the military has to withdraw to the barracks The military basically replaced one set of corrupt politicians with another in order to sustain its own power base The main controlling authority for the defence establishment is the Ministry of Defence MoD The MoD controls four main planks of Milbus the Service Headuarters the Department of Military Land and Cantonment ML the FF and the Rangers a paramilitary force Other institutions such as the National Logistic Cell NLC The Frontier Work Organization and the Special Communications Organization are controlled by the army NLC instead of revitalizing the Pakistan Railways which had until the creation of the military transport company been the main cargo transporter in the country The creation of NLC was not a case of privatizing cargo transport but of shifting work from one public sector institution to another and hence creating a duplication of efforts The blatant use of intelligence agencies to manipulate and overthrow governments had left civilian governments too insecure to challenge the military's involvement in business The Accountability Ordinance passed by Musharraf precluded the military and judiciary from being uestioned under the new accountability rules because the military have their own accountability procedures Military feudalism denotes a set of economic and political relations and a pattern of social behavior The monopolization and control of land is understood as a symbol of power which adds to the powerful image of the armed forces Military uses three methods for acuiring and developing housing schemes1 Houses constructed on state land2 Private land appropriated with or without enough compensation and developed into housing schemes by military subsidiaries 3 Private land acuired bu DHAs the management of which falls under the purview of the Army GHInvestment in real estate became rampant after 911 and also during the Afghan War when there was an extraordinary flow of dollars in Pakistan as aid People have greater faith in investing in military controlled schemes because there are fewer instances of fraud than in civilian schemes Military personnel attribute this to their indisputable capacity for discipline and better management Pakistan's military welfare system is based on two distinct models 1 Fauji Foundation Model the conservative method of providing health educational and employment facilities to retired personnel and their dependents2 The Army Welfare Trust Model formed on the principle of generating profit to buy additional welfare for armed forces personnel and to provide post retirement employment for retired personnel This system might serve the interests of the armed forces personnel and help the organization retain better uality staff but it has substantial socio political costs The four foundations were established under the Charitable Endowment Act 1890 hence the accounts of these foundations are not audited by the government;s prime accounting agency the Auditor General of Pakistan therefore correct estimates about their lossprofit are unknown On the other hand AWT was thrice 19971999 and 2001 given financial aid from the government despite it falling under the private sector Milbus as a whole is a unknown territory as not much data is available hence it is not discussed much Ayesha Siddia was brave enough to write about it Though the book was uite repetitive but the information was mindbogglingly new for meBlog | Instagram | Facebook | LinkedIn